Questions - Answers
03
Aralık
2008

When can I plant at the latest?

Most suitable time for planting open rooted stocks is November - December in Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean, Black Sea and Southeastern Regions. In these regions, February - March should be waited for regions with altitude over 600 m and central regions. Regarding Central and Eastern Anatolia, planting can be performed beginning from March until April 15. Regardless of the region, it is better to plant before the stocks shoot. If planting is very late, it is hard for the stocks to retain. Tubed stocks can be planted at any time during the year but it is better to plant these stocks before very hot days.


12
Eylül
2008

Is it important which rootstock is used for the nursery stock?

Reason of using fruit stocks is to allow it adopt to the different climate and soil types? Therefore, characteristics of rootstocks should be well known. Clone trees affect the size of trees (crown volume), resistance to disease and pests, lifetime of tree, year of yielding, productivity and quality, harvest time of fruit and resistance to aridity and frost. Therefore, you have to investigate the soil and climate structure of the field you will plant.


11
Eylül
2008

Which criteria must be taken into consideration in harvesting?

One of the most important faults for fruit growing in our country is not to determine the fruit harvest times correctly. Important harvest criteria. Outer color and ground color of fruit. Hardness of fruit (measured with a device called penotrometer), dry material rate of fruit-amount of sugar (measured with a simple device called refractometer) Seed's color (mostly dark or light brown), fruit size, rate of amylum's conversion into sugar (measured with amylum test by iodure potassium iodure solution). Flavor of fruit, number of days after the full blooming is the most important one. For example, for the Granny Smith apple harvest time in Marmara Region is the 3rd week of October, however many growers harvest 1-1.5 months earlier.


23
Nisan
2008

Can you give me information about the amount and time of thinning for the fruits?

Thinning is a must in fruit growing to have standard sized fruits. Thinning should be performed for peach, nectarine, apple, pear and even partly Japan plums and apricots. Thinning can be done by breaking by hand, using chemicals or shaking the branches and trunk of tree. Regarding the manual thinning on apple 15-20 days after the full blooming, while the fruits are like nut sized, king fruit at the center remains and others around it are taken. In thinning held with chemicals, 150 gr Sevin chemical for a tone, 15-20 gr Naftalen Asetik Acid (NAA) for a tone or 70 gr NAD for a tone should be applied liquidly 15-20 days after the defloration. 

While the fruits of peach and nectarine are small nut sized, manual thinning to leave a fruit in each 12-15 cm can be performed. Chemical thinning isn't always successful in peach trees. For dense fruits in Japan plums, a fruit in 3-4 cm should be left. If you are late for thinning, fruit size can't be as demanded.


22
Şubat
2008

Can you tell me the best time for budding the trees in my garden?

For winter budding of apple, pear, walnut and cherry species the best time for budding starts 1 month before the fruit and shoot cells are formed and until the cells are apparent; for the peach, nectarine, and plum and almond best time is the duration starting with cells being apparent until blooming. Injuries on the trees take time to recover in budding in November and December, moreover frosts right after these budding processes may harm the trees. In budding in February, removing the dry shoots is easier.


04
Ocak
2008

How do you foresee the future of fruit growing in Turkey?

Although our country takes the lead with regards to amount of production for many fruits, it remains behind for export rates. However, establishing closed fruit gardens, production, packing and cold storage in line with the standards are hopeful for the future of our fruit growing. In the next 10 years, with the increase of export to Russia as well as the Europe, fruit stocks sector shall gain momentum.


04
Ocak
2008

I would like to establish a fruit garden, can you help me in choosing the suitable fruit type?

Selection of specie and type is very crucial for fruit gardens. In order that the commercially established garden can make profit, species and types should be correctly selected. Ecological data and soil must be well investigated and also it should be decided after making the relevant observations in the garden. Additionally, an expert Agricultural Engineer should also visit the site. Another important thing is to decide which specie will be advantageous for harvesting time. 

Southern Mediterranean and Aegean are better for early harvest while Central Anatolia and Black Sea regions are good for late harvest. For example, our export product 0900 Ziraat cherry is harvested in the first week of May in Kemalpaşa district of İzmir, it is harvested in last week of July in altitudes 1200-1500m of Konya Hadim district, and therefore both growers sell their products at a good price.


04
Ocak
2008

Am I have to keep bee hives in my garden for sufficient fertilizing and fruitfulness?

Fertilizing is performed by bees at a rate of 95% in apple, pear, plum, cherry, peach, apricot, almond, quince. Therefore it is important to have bee hives in the garden. Some European Countries advanced in fruit sector and California farmers lease bee hives from the bee growers and this has become a sector in many places. 3 to 4 bee hives are enough for 10 decares garden. No pesticide shall be used in the garden during blooming period





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